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GALVUS (VILDAGLIPTIN): PHARMACODYNAMICS
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drugs used in diabetes, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, ATC code: A10BH02
Vildagliptin (Galvus), a member of the islet enhancer class, is a potent and selective DPP-4 inhibitor.
Mechanism of action
The administration of vildagliptin results in a rapid and complete inhibition of DPP-4 activity, resulting in increased fasting and postprandial endogenous levels of the incretin hormones GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) and GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide).
By increasing the endogenous levels of these incretin hormones, vildagliptin enhances the sensitivity of beta cells to glucose, resulting in improved glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Treatment with vildagliptin 50-100 mg daily in patients with type2 diabetes significantly improved markers of beta cell function including HOMA-beta (Homeostasis Model Assessment–beta), proinsulin to insulin ratio and measures of beta cell responsiveness from the frequently-sampled meal tolerance test. In non-diabetic (normal glycaemic) individuals, vildagliptin does not stimulate insulin secretion or reduce glucose levels.
By increasing endogenous GLP-1 levels, vildagliptin also enhances the sensitivity of alpha cells to glucose, resulting in more glucose-appropriate glucagon secretion.
The enhanced increase in the insulin/glucagon ratio during hyperglycaemia due to increased incretin hormone levels results in a decrease in fasting and postprandial hepatic glucose production, leading to reduced glycaemia.
The known effect of increased GLP-1 levels delaying gastric emptying is not observed with vildagliptin treatment.
Clinical efficacy and safety
More than 15,000 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in double-blind placebo-or active-controlled clinical trials of up to more than 2 years' treatment duration. In these studies, Vildagliptin (Galvus) was administered to more than 9,000 patients at daily dose s of 50 mg once daily, 50 mg twice daily or 100 mg once daily. More than 5,000 male and
more than 4,000 female patients received vildagliptin 50 mg once daily or 100 mg daily. More than 1,900 patients receiving vildagliptin 50 mg once daily or 100 mg daily were >=
65 years. In these trials, vildagliptin was administered as monotherapy in drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes or in combination in patients not adequately controlled by other
antidiabetic medicinal products.
Overall, vildagliptin improved glycaemic control when given as monotherapy or when used in combination with metformin, a sulphonylurea, and a thiazolidinedione, as measured by clinically relevant reductions in HbA1c from baseline at study endpoint.
In clinical trials, the magnitude of HbA1c reductions with vildagliptin was greater in patients with higher baseline HbA1c.
In a 52-week double-blind controlled trial, vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) reduced baseline HbA1c by -1% compared to -1.6% for metformin (titrated to 2 g per day) statistical non-inferiority was not achieved. Patients treated with vildagliptin reported significantly lower incidences of gastrointestinal adverse reactions versus those treated with metformin.
In a 24-week double-blind controlled trial, vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) was compared to rosiglitazone (8 mg once daily). Mean reductions were -1.20% with vildagliptin and -
1.48% with rosiglitazone in patients with mean baseline HbA1c of 8.7%. Patients receiving rosiglitazone experienced a mean increase in weight (+1.6 kg) while those receiving vildagliptin experienced no weight gain (-0.3 kg). The incidence of peripheral oedema was lower in the vildagliptin group than in the rosiglitazone group (2.1% vs. 4.1% respectively).
In a clinical trial of 2 years' duration, vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) was compared to gliclazide (up to 320 mg per day). After two years, mean reduction in HbA1c was -0.5% for Vildagliptin (Galvus) and - 0.6% for gliclazide, from a mean baseline HBA1c of 8.6%. Statistical non-inferiority was not achieved. Vildagliptin was associated with fewer hypoglycaemic events (0.7%) than gliclazide (1.7%).
In a 24-week trial, vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) was compared to pioglitazone (30 mg once daily) in patients inadequately controlled with metformin (mean daily dose: 2020 mg). Mean reductions from baseline HbA1c of 8.4% were -0.9% with vildagliptin added to metformin and -1.0% with pioglitazone added to metformin. A mean weight gain of +1.9 kg was observed in patients receiving pioglitazone added to metformin compared to +0.3 kg in those receiving vildagliptin added to metformin.
In a clinical trial of 2 years; duration, vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) was compared to glimepiride (up to 6 mg per day–mean dose at 2 years: 4.6 mg) in patients treated with metformin (mean daily dose: 1894 mg). After 1 year mean reductions in HbA1c were -0.4% with vildagliptin added to metformin and -0.5% with glimepiride added to metformin, from a mean baseline HbA1c of 7.3%. Body weight change with vildagliptin was -0.2kg vs +1.6kg with glimepiride. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was significantly lower in the vildagliptin group (1.7%) than in the glimepiride group (16.2%). At study endpoint (2 years), the HbA1c was similar to baseline values in both treatment groups and the body weight changes and hypoglycaemia differences were maintained.
In a 52-week trial, vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) was compared to gliclazide (mean daily dose: 229.5 mg) in patients inadequately controlled with metformin (metformin dose at baseline 1928 mg per day) . After 1 year, mean reductions in HbA1c were -0.81% with vildagliptin added to metformin (mean baseline HbA1c 8.4%) and -0.85% with gliclazide added to metformin (mean baseline HbA1c 8.5%); statistical non-inferiority was achieved (95% CI -0.11 –0.20). Body weight change with vildagliptin was +0.1 kg compared to a weight gain of +1.4 kg with gliclazide.
In a 24-week trial the efficacy of the fixed dose combination of vildagliptin and metformin (gradually titrated to a dose of 50 mg / 500 mg twice daily or 50 mg / 1000 mg twice daily) as initial therapy in drug-naive patients was evaluated. Vildagliptin / metformin 50 mg / 1000 mg twice daily reduced HbA1c by -1.82%, vildagliptin / metformin 50 mg / 500
mg twice daily by -1.61%, metformin 1000 mg twice daily by -1.36% and vildagliptin 50 mg twice daily by -1.09% from a mean baseline HbA1c of 8.6%.
The decrease in HbA1c observed in patients with a baseline >= 10.0% was greater. A 24-week, multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to
evaluate the treatment effect of vildagliptin 50 mg once daily compared to placebo in 515 patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate renal impairment (N=294) or severe renal impairment (N=221). 68.8% and 80.5% of the patients with moderate and severe renal impairment respectively were treated with insulin (mean daily dose of 56 units and 51.6 units respectively) at baseline. In patients with moderate renal impairment vildagliptin significantly decreased HbA1c compared with placebo (difference of -0.53%) from a mean baseline of 7.9%. In patients with severe renal impairment, vildagliptin significantly decreased HbA1c compared with placebo (difference of -0.56%) from a mean baseline of 7.7%.
A 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 318 patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) in combination with metformin (>= 1500 mg daily) and glimepiride (>= 4 mg daily). Vildagliptin in combination with metformin and glimepiride significantly decreased HbA1c compared with placebo. The placebo-adjusted mean reduction from a mean baseline HbA1c of 8.8% was -0.76%.
A 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 449 patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) in combination with a stable dose of basal or premixed insulin (mean daily dose 41 units), with concomitant use of metformin (N=276) or without concomitant metformin (N=173). Galvus (Vildagliptin) in combination with insulin significantly decreased HbA1c compared with placebo. In the overall population, the placebo-adjusted mean reduction from a mean baseline HbA1c 8.8% was
-0.72%. In the subgroups treated with insulin with or without concomitant metformin the placebo-adjusted mean reduction in HbA1c was -0.63% and -0.84%, respectively. The incidence of hypoglycaemia in the overall population was 8.4% and 7.2% in the vildagliptin and placebo groups, respectively. Patients receiving vildagliptin experienced no weight gain (+0.2
kg) while those receiving placebo experienced weight reduction (-0.7 kg).
In another 24-week study in patients with more advanced type 2 diabetes not adequately controlled on insulin (short and longer acting, average insulin dose 80 IU per day), the mean reduction in HbA1c when vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) was added to insulin was statistically significantly greater than with placebo plus insulin (0.5% vs. 0.2%). The incidence of hypoglycaemia was lower in the vildagliptin group than in the placebo group (22.9% vs. 29.6%).
A 52-week multi-centre, randomised, double-blind trial was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes and congestive heart failure (NYHA functional class I-III) to evaluate the effect of vildagliptin 50 mg twice daily (N=128) compared to placebo (N=126) on left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Vildagliptin was not associated with a change in left-ventricular function or worsening of pre-existing CHF. Adjudicated cardiovascular events were balanced overall. There were more cardiac events in vildagliptin treated patients with NYHA class III heart failure compared to placebo. However, there were imbalances in baseline cardiovascular risk favouring placebo and the number of events was low, precluding firm conclusions. Vildagliptin significantly decreased HbA1c compared with placebo (difference of 0.6%) from a mean baseline of 7.8% at week 16. In the subgroup with NYHA class III,
the decrease in HbA1c compared to placebo was lower (difference 0.3%) but this conclusion is limited by the small number of patients (n=44). The incidence of hypoglycaemia in the overall population was 4.7% and 5.6% in the vildagliptin and placebo groups, respectively.
A meta-analysis of independently and prospectively adjudicated cardiovascular events from 25 phase III clinical studies of up to more than 2 years duration was performed and showed that Galvus (Vildagliptin) treatment was not associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk versus comparators. The composite endpoint of adjudicated cardiovascular and cerebrovascular (CCV) events [acute coronary syndrome (ACS), transient ischaemic attack (with imaging evidence of infarction), stroke or CCV death], was similar for vildagliptin versus combined active and placebo comparators [Mantel–Haenszel risk ratio 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.63-1.12)]. In total, 99 out of 8956 patients reported an event in the vildagliptin group vs 91 out of 6061 patients in the comparator group.
The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies with vildagliptin in all subsets of the paediatric population with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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