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GALVUS (VILDAGLIPTIN): PHARMACOKINETICS

Absorption

Following oral administration in the fasting state, vildagliptin is rapidly absorbed, with peak plasma concentrations observed at 1.7 hours. Food slightly delays the time to peak plasma concentration to 2.5 hours, but does not alter the overall exposure (AUC). Administration of vildagliptin with food resulted in a decreased Cmax (19%). However, the magnitude of change is not clinically significant, so that Galvus can be given with or without food. The absolute bioavailability is 85%.

Distribution

The plasma protein binding of vildagliptin is low (9.3%) and vildagliptin distributes equally between plasma and red blood cells. The mean volume of distribution of vildagliptin at steady-state after intravenous administration (Vss) is 71 litres, suggesting extravascular distribution.

Biotransformation

Metabolism is the major elimination pathway for vildagliptin in humans, accounting for 69% of the dose. The major metabolite (LAY 151) is pharmacologically inactive and is the hydrolysis product of the cyano moiety, accounting for 57% of the dose, followed by the glucuronide (BQS867) and the amide hydrolysis products (4% of dose). In vitro data in human kidney microsomes suggest that the kidney may be one of the major organs contributing to the hydrolysis of vildagliptin to its major inactive metabolite, LAY151. DPP-4 contributes partially to the hydrolysis of vildagliptin based on an in vivo study using DPP-4 deficient rats. Vildagliptin is not metabolised by CYP 450 enzymes to any quantifiable extent. Accordingly, the metabolic clearance of vildagliptin is not anticipated to be affected by co-medications that are CYP 450 inhibitors and/or inducers. In vitro studies demonstrated that vildagliptin does not inhibit/induce CYP 450 enzymes. Therefore, vildagliptin is not likely to affect metabolic clearance of co-medications metabolised by CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19, CYP 2D6, CYP 2E1 or CYP 3A4/5.

Elimination

Following oral administration of [14C] vildagliptin, approximately 85% of the dose was excreted into the urine and 15% of the dose is recovered in the faeces. Renal excretion of the unchanged Vildagliptin (Galvus) accounted for 23% of the dose after oral administration. After intravenous administration to healthy subjects, the total plasma and renal clearances of vildagliptin are 41 and 13 l/h, respectively. The mean elimination half-life after intravenous administration is approximately 2 hours. The elimination half-life after oral administration is approximately 3 hours.

Linearity / non-linearity

The Cmax for vildagliptin and the area under the plasma concentrations versus time curves (AUC) increased in an approximately dose proportional manner over the therapeutic dose range.

Characteristics in specific groups of patients

Gender

No clinically relevant differences in the pharmacokinetics of vildagliptin were observed between male and female healthy subjects within a wide range of age and body mass index (BMI). DPP-4 inhibition by vildagliptin is not affected by gender.

Elderly

In healthy elderly subjects (>= 70 years), the overall exposure of vildagliptin (100 mg once daily) was increased by 32%, with an 18% increase in peak plasma concentration as compared to young healthy subjects (18-40 years). These changes are, however, not considered to be clinically relevant. DPP-4 inhibition by vildagliptin is not affected by age.

Hepatic impairment

The effect of impaired hepatic function on the pharmacokinetics of vildagliptin was studied in patients with mild, moderate and severe hepatic impairment based on the Child-Pugh scores (ranging from 6 for mild to 12 for severe) in comparison with healthy subjects. The exposure to vildagliptin after a single dose in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment was decreased (20% and 8%, respectively), while the exposure to vildagliptin for patients with severe impairment was increased by 22%. The maximum change (increase or decrease) in the exposure to vildagliptin is ~30%, which is not considered to be clinically relevant. There was no correlation between the severity of the hepatic disease and changes in the exposure to vildagliptin.

Renal impairment

A multiple-dose, open-label trial was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the lower therapeutic dose of vildagliptin (50 mg once daily) in patients with varying degrees of chronic renal impairment defined by creatinine clearance (mild: 50 to < 80 ml / min, moderate: 30 to < 50 ml / min and severe: < 30 ml / min) compared to normal healthy control subjects.

Vildagliptin AUC increased on average 1.4, 1.7 and 2-fold in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively, compared to normal healthy subjects. AUC of the metabolites LAY151 and BQS867 increased on average about 1.5, 3 and 7-fold in patients with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively. Limited data from patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) indicate that vildagliptin exposure is similar to that in patients with severe renal impairment. LAY151 concentrations were approximately 2-3-fold higher than in patients with severe renal impairment.

Vildagliptin (Galvus) was removed by haemodialysis to a limited extent (3% over a 3-4 hour haemodialysis session starting 4 hours post dose).

Ethnic group

Limited data suggest that race does not have any major influence on vildagliptin pharmacokinetics.


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